Friday, November 07, 2014

Beit Al Maqdas, The House of Prayer for All Nations that Omar Built-- Part I

at my other blog

http://toldotyisrael.wordpress.com/2014/11/07/beit-al-maqdas-the-house-of-prayer-for-all-nations-that-omar-built-part-i/

Thursday, November 06, 2014

האומנם שמות לא יהודיים? תגובה למאמר באתר הסנהדרין

מצאתי קטע במאמר של אתר הסנהדרין ולא יכולתי לא להגיב 

"יהודי, החי בתרבות של אמונה ומצוות, לבנו כינוי - שם של בעל חי פחדן טמא. אמנם מצינו בדורות מאוחרים תופעה של קריאת שמות של בעלי חיים טמאים ליהודים - אריה דב זאב אך בכולם מדובר בבעלי חיים אמיצים ותקיפים וכנראה גם בהקשר בעל משמעות דתית לאומית (אריה- גור אריה יהודה = כינוי לשבט יהודה, דב- דב אורב הוא לי ארי במסתרים = כינוי לקב"ה, זאב- בנימין זאב יטרף=כינוי לשבט בנימין). מה גם שהאישים המקראיים הנושאים שם זה היו בעלי מעמד וחשיבות גבוהים מאוד במידרג החברתי הדתי שבדורם, ואז יקשה לנו מה ראו לדבוק בשם כזה המתייחס לבעל חיים פחדן. עם כל זאת ייתכן וכוונת התורה היא שהשפן הינו הארנבון וזוהי אולי גם הסיבה לכתיבת שני בעלי החיים הללו יחד בפסוק אחד בתורה בחומש דברים יז ג "ואת הארנבת ואת השפן" שהרי הגמל השונה מהותית מהם נכתב בפסוק נפרד...."



דוב, אריה, זאב, וכדו' הם שמות נפוצים למדי- במיוחד בין בני אשכנז. למרות שחיות אלו נמנות בין החיות הטמאות בתורה, מכל מקום לא ראה אבות אבותנו בזה שום פסול. הלא מצינו כבר בתורה שכמעט כל שבט ושבט נמשלו לאיזה חיה בהמה או עוף (ואפילו שרץ) חלקם טהורים וחלקם לא  (יהודה-אריה, דן-נחש, יששכר-חמור
זוהי תופעה מעניינת שהתחילה כנראה בעבר הרחוק . כאמור, למרות שהתורה נוקב בשמותם ומונה אותם בין הייצורים הטמאים, לא בחלו יהודים בתקופת התנ"ך וגם בתקופות מאוחרות יותר, בתקופת בית שני, לאמץ להם שמות של חיות, בהמות שרצים או עופות אשר אינם טהורות. הנה כמה דוגמאות:
*כלב בן יפונה, דמות מקראית. על פי המקרא היה נשיא שבט יהודה שנכלל בשנים עשר המרגלים שנשלחו על ידי משה לתור את הארץ. כלב, ביחד עם יהושע בן נון. (וברשימת הנשיאים-מרגלים
השם כלב רווח בכל השפות השמיות הקדומות, וכן בפניקית ובאוגריתית, וייתכן שזהו קיצור מהשם כלב האל, כלומר עבדו הנאמן והנכנע של האל.
  ) בבמדבר יג' מופיעים גם השמות גַּדִּי, בֶּן-סוּסִי ועַמִּיאֵל בֶּן-גְּמַלִּי)
*דבורה, הייתה מינקת רבקה. בספר בראשית מתוארים תפקידה ומקום קבורתה, שנקרא אלון בכות: "וַתָּמָת דְּבֹרָה מֵינֶקֶת רִבְקָה וַתִּקָּבֵר מִתַּחַת לְבֵית-אֵל תַּחַת הָאַלּוֹן וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אַלּוֹן בָּכוּת" (ל"ה, ח')
*דבורה הנביאה היא דמות מקראית, מהמנהיגים המושיעים שקמו לישראל בתקופת השופטים ומי ששפטה את הארץ ביחד עם ברק בן אבינעם
*שפן בן אצליה בן משולם הידוע בשם שפן הסופר, הוא דמות מקראית המוזכרת בספר מלכים (ב' כב, ג-טו). היה סופר בתקופת שלטונו של יאשיהו מלך יהודה.
עכבור בן מיכיה כנ"ל (במלכים ב' כ' מופיעים שלשתם [ראה גם חלדה] ביחד: וַיֵּלֶךְ חִלְקִיָּהוּ הַכֹּהֵן וַאֲחִיקָם וְעַכְבּוֹר וְשָׁפָן וַעֲשָׂיָה אֶל-חֻלְדָּה הַנְּבִיאָה אֵשֶׁת שַׁלֻּם בֶּן-תִּקְוָה בֶּן-חַרְחַס שֹׁמֵר הַבְּגָדִים וְהִיא יֹשֶׁבֶת בִּירוּשָׁלִַם בַּמִּשְׁנֶה וַיְדַבְּרוּ אֵלֶיהָ...)

*חֻלדה הנביאה הייתה נביאה בתנ"ך, בימי המלך יאשיהו.

*פלטי בן ליש. ליש היא חית טרף ממשפחת החתולים

*רִצְפָּה בַת-אַיָּה היא דמות מקראית, שהייתה פילגשו של שאול המלך
*הכי מעניינת ויוצא דופן מכולם הם משפחת הכהנים בני חֵזִיר שהיו אחד מ24 משמרות כהונה. השם "חזיר" (ותמיד עם צירה תחת ה /ח/) נזכר ברשימת הכהנים בדברי הימים א' כד.
השם מופיע גם בספר נחמיה (פרק י', כ"א), ברשימת שמות של ראשי משפחות שעלו מבבל ולא ברור אם יש קשר למשפחת הכהנים מבית שני.
בתלמוד הירושלמי, (מסכת תענית, פרק ד', הלכה ב') מובא הסבר לשם חזיר, לפיו מקור השם הוא השורש ח.ז.ר. כלומר; דוד המלך ושמואל הנביא ("שמואל הרואה" - בלשון התלמוד הירושלמי) הוסיפו עוד שש-עשרה משמרות כהונה על שמונה המשמרות הקיימות שהעמיד משה. לכל אורך תהליך הוספת המשמרות הקפידו על חלוקה שווה של משמרות, חציין מבני אלעזר הכהן וחציין מבני איתמר הכהן, אך כאשר הגיעו לארבעת האחרונות שהיו צריכות להיות מבני איתמר, לא היו מספיק צאצאים לאיתמר, כך שארבעת המשמרות האחרונות היו מבני אלעזר והפרו את השוויון. ממקרה זה נגזר השם חזיר, בכך שסבב חלוקת המשמרות 'חזר' להיות מבני אלעזר עקב חוסר בבני איתמר.
קברי בני חזיר נשתמרו ונמצאו עד היום הזה בהר הזיתים. ראה פהhttp://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-3382253,00.html
ובהזדמנות זאת אזכיר גם את הכוהנים לבית קייפא (שהוא כנראה קוף בארמית). יוחנן בן קייפא היה כהן גדול בתקופת בית שני (ומזכר במקורות נוצריים כמי שהורה לנציב הרומי להרוג את ישו), וגם קבר משפחתו נמצא לאחרונה ראה פה http://he.wikipedia.org/…/%D7%A7%D7%91%D7%A8_%D7%91%D7%A0%D…
ופה
http://www.imjnet.org.il/HTMLs/Popup.aspx?c0=14096
וגם פה http://www.haaretz.co.il/news/education/1.1178842
אגב, לחוקר הנודע משה גיל יש תיאוריה מעניינת לגבי המסורת המוסלמית הידוע לשמצה, על פיה היהודים הם צאצאי קופים וחזירים. הוא סובר שזה קשור לנדודי משפחות הכהנים הנ"ל לחצי האי ערב. ראה על זה פהhttp://www.haaretz.co.il/literature/1.1173430
ואולי יש להוסיף לרשימה את נחושתא בת אלנתן אם יהויכין בֶּן שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה יְהוֹיָכִין בְּמָלְכוֹ ... וְשֵׁם אִמּוֹ נְחֻשְׁתָּא בַת אֶלְנָתָן ( מלכים ב). יש שמשערים שנקראה כך ע"ש נחש הנחושת שבנה משה והפך לפולחן ע"ז ברבות הימים. ולכן הרס אותו חזקיהו המלך ככ' חִזְקִיָּה בֶן אָחָז מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה ... הֵסִיר אֶת הַבָּמוֹת וְשִׁבַּר אֶת הַמַּצֵּבֹת וְכָרַת אֶת הָאֲשֵׁרָה וכִּתַּת נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה כִּי עַד הַיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה הָיוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקַטְּרִים לוֹ וַיִּקְרָא לוֹ נְחֻשְׁתן
(אציין אגב שגם גויי הסביבה, דוברי שפות שמיות, בתקופת המקרא לפעמים בחרו להם שמות של חיות בהמות ועופות כגון זאב ועורב, שני שרי מדין המוזכרים בספר שופטים ובתהילים פרק פג' ונחש מלך עמון, חמור אבי שכם, בלק בן ציפור, בעל חנן בן עכבור מלך הכנעני וכו')

Israeli Funnyman Tal Friedman Finds Out He's Ashkenazy After All (Serious Post--Mostly).






Tal Friedman is one of the few comic geniuses in the Jewish State (ok, I'm not being entirely objective here). He is best known for his regular appearances on the popular weekend satirical show Eretz Nehederet (Wonderful Country). From his sidesplitting portrayal of Luba, the easily-annoyed checkout lady with the heavy Russian accent to his dead-on portrayal of Hamasnik Mohammed Abu Tir (with his trademark red, henna-tinted beard), Friedman just knows how to tickle the funny bone. 

Well, as his name seems to imply, he is a scion of a Eastern European Jewish family that immigrated to Israel from Poland. But Friedman wasn't always so sure. In a recent Israeli version of the popular geneaological show Who Do You Think You Are, he recounted an old family tradition wherein the clan was supposed to have originated in either Spain or North Africa owing to the family surname 'Kartagener'. The name was thought to have been taken on by an ancestor who came from either Cartagena, Spain or from Tunisia (Carthage is now a suburb of modern-day Tunis. Tunisia. Its Spanish namesake was dubbed so by the conquering Carthagenian King Hasdrubaal in 227 BCE).

Friedman starts his journey by undergoing a DNA test. He follows it up by traveling to Poland and meeting a second-cousin there. The latter is skeptical, at best, about the purported Spanish or North African claims. The DNA results come back and show that he has the typical Eastern European Ashkenazi haplotype.

So, the question remains for us researchers and novices; from whence this curious surname?

Kretinga in Lithuania has been proposed as a possible source (although I am skeptical owing to the syntax and spelling of the respective names).

The surname seems to have been adopted randomly. Similar place names were adopted by Eastern European Jews when the taking of a surname became mandatory in the first part of the 19th century.
In order to meet the demand of developing numerous varied surnames, either the Jewish administration or their bearers often invented surnames based on precious metal and gems, colors, types of flora, minerals, animals, and even countries. 

Here are several examples:

GIBRALTAR is a rare Jewish surname, its origin are not particularly unique and does not indicate, as many laymen theorize, that its bearers descend from Sephardic Jews once residing on the island of Gibraltar. Surnames based on countries among Jews in Czarist Russia include: AMERIKANER (i.e., America), DENEMARK, ENGLAND, FIN (i.e., Finland), IRLENDER (i.e., Ireland), MAROKO (i.e., Morocco), MEKSIK (i.e., Mexico), SHVAYTSER (i.e., Switzerland), SHVEYD (i.e., Sweden), SURIA (i.e., Syria), YAPONTCHIK (i.e., Japan), YORDANSKY (i.e. the Jordan River), as well as GIBRALTAR. In no way do these surnames indicate that these Jewish families originated from any of these countries, for certainly no Jews ever immigrated to Russia prior to 1821 from a number of these countries: Jews did not reside in modern times in Japan until 1861, and no Jews were allowed to reside in Finland until the 1850s. Hence, when the Jews in the province of Suwalki were required to acquire surnames in 1821, the surname GIBRALTAR was generated among thousands of new surnames. 


Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

That Time When the Cohen Gadol Was Pelted With Etrogim


(Photo reproduced from The Temple Institute. All rights reserved to The Temple Institute)


Jewniverse has a witty blog post about an incident that is mentioned in Tractate Sukkah 48B

"תנו רבנן, מעשה בצדוקי אחד(! ) שנסך על גבי רגליו ורגמוהו כל העם באתרוגיהן ואותו היום נפגמה קרן המזבח והביאו בול של מלח וסתמוהו וכו'" (סוכה, מח' ב').


The Talmud describes a Kohen Gadol who openly mocked the mitzvah of nisuch hamayim, the water libations by pouring the golden pitcher of water on his feet rather than on the altar. The incensed crowd (who evidently were composed mostly of Perushim[cf. Josephus that most of the common folk were perushi sympathizers]) began pelting him with their etrogim and on that day a corner of the altar was damaged and required repair.

Now this story requires some elucidation:

1. Is there another aspect to this story, other than the obvious Zadoki disdain for what they perceived to be a made-up mitzvah?

2. Etrogim are hardly the stuff that would cause damage to a solidly built altar made of metal. What gives?

To understand the background to this strange and macabre tale, one must understand the mindset and beliefs of the Sadduccees/Zadokim, a Second Temple sect who rejected much of what we consider Torah Shebaal Peh and championed belief solely in the Torah Shebiktav.

The commandment of water libations are indeed never explicitly mentioned in the Torah. Chazal deem this Halakha L'moshe Misinai and bring several verses that are an 'asmakhta' see here
This became a sticking point (one among many) between the Zadokim and the Perushim. And on one occasion it led to the outright violence described in the story under discussion.

So how did the altar incur such severe damage from the shower of citrons? Rashi and the Aruch L'ner offer that it wasn't just etrogim that were thrown but rather rocks. The Aruch L'ner writes that the crowd threw their citrons and when they were done with that, they picked up rocks and began throwing them in the direction of the Kohen who was still standing on the altar (some commentators claim that he was etrogged to death but this doesn't seem to have been the case, as will be seen later).

This event was so traumatic that the Rabbis instituted new protocols for the performance of this mitzvah. From then on, the Kohen Gadol was supposed to raise his hands high--in order to provide the crowd with a good view--while performing the libation.
"ולמנסך אומר לו הגבה ידך, שפעם אחד נסך אחד על גבי רגליו ורגמוהו כל העם באתרוגיהן" (סוכה צ"ז).

Who was this renegade Kohen Gadol? He seems to have been no other than the Hasmonean Monarch Alexander Yannai. Josephus in Antiquities describes the episode thus:

"בימים ההם קשרו היהודים על ינאי המלך קשר ובחג הסוכות בעלות המלך (בתפקידו ככהן גדול) על מזבח הפנימי להקריב עולת החג השליכו עליו רבים מבני העם את האתרוגים אשר בידם, ויחרפוהו ויתנו עליו בקולם: "צא, צא בן חללה! לא לך לגשת אל מזבח השם כי אמך הייתה חללה (השווה קדושין סו' א'), 
ויקצוף המלך מאד וחמתו בערה בו ויט ידו מעל המזבח ויקרא: "חרב, חרב על פרושים! " וישלפו גדודיו שומרי ראשו את חרבותיהם ויהרגו בעם כששת אלפים איש מעדת הפרושים, ויצו המלך לנגוח חומת עץ בבית ה' להבדיל בין חצר העם לבין חצר הכוהנים הפנימי לבל יוסיפו עוד המורדים להרגיזו בבואו לעבוד את עבודת הקודש. גם שכר לו אנשי צבא מבני פיזיציה וקיליקיה להיות תמיד סביב לו ולשמרו בכל אשר ילך" (קדמוניות היהודים יג),

As to Alexander, his own people were seditious against him; for at a festival which was then celebrated, when he stood upon the altar, and was going to sacrifice, the nation rose upon him, and pelted him with citrons [which they then had in their hands, because] the law of the Jews required that at the feast of tabernacles every one should have branches of the palm tree and citron tree; which thing we have elsewhere related. They also reviled him, as derived from a captive, and so unworthy of his dignity and of sacrificing. At this he was in a rage, and slew of them about six thousand.

The ensuing slaughter can easily be seen as the cause for the safeguards put in place later, probably under the reign of his successor: his wife-- a friend of the Pharisees, the Queen Salome Alexandra (Shlomziyon).


But there is an added dimension to this story that I believe has been overlooked by scholars. Namely the symbolism of the citron. Interestingly, there is no mention of lulavim being thrown (though one may imagine that one could do more damage with its prickly jaggedy leafs). This, in my opinion, is because in addition to the Zadoki opposition to nisukh hamayim, the former also objected to the taking of the arba minim in hand. They interpreted the Torah's mandate to take the four species in order to construct booths (it is a legitimate lone opinion cited in Tractate Sukkah--albeit in addition to taking them in hand). Therefore, the crowd pelted him with the citrons, thus demonstrating that they knew what he did there and they had his number.

**Hebrew citations from Talmud are provided courtesy of the Daat website. With special thanks to them


Notes:


1.) On references to the identification of 'peri eitz hadar' with the etrog in Rabbinic literature see here (better yet, read Zohar Amar's book).




2). On various sectarian interpretations of the four minim, see here and here

What I found particularly interesting is the Ethiopian Jews who do not take the four minim in hand yet  follow the Apocryphal Book of Jubilees on most important matters of religious law.

 There are special prayers but the Falashas do not make the booths required by scriptures. The reason given for the disregard of this ordinance is that the huts in which they live may be regarded as booths symbolical of Israel’s sojourn in the wilderness. They spread leaves of various trees, such as palm and a variety of weeping willow, over the floor of their houses and the Synagogue.
…..The first and last days are called holy and no work is allowed during the whole festival. On the last day, the priests or the deacons carry the Torah in the Synagogue and the people dance…

(Falasha Anthology, p. xxxii).





On Sukkot, Jubilees has this to say:




ספר היובלים ט"ז כ"ט-לא: "על כן הוקם בלוחות השמים על ישראל כי יהיו עושים את חג הסוכות שבעת ימים בשמחה בחודש בשביעי ויהי לרצון לפני ה' חק עולם לדורותם בכל שנה ושנה. ואין לזה קץ הימים כי לעולם הוקם לישראל לעשותו וישבו בסוכות ושמו כתרים על ראשם ולקחו ענף עץ עבות וערבי נחל. ויקח אברהם לבות תמרים ופרי עץ הדר וסבב מדי יום ביומו את המזבח בענפים שבע ליום ובבוקר יהלל ויודה לאלוהיו על הכל בשמחה".
For this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tables concerning Israel, that they shall celebrate the feast of tabernacles seven days with joy, in the seventh month, acceptable before the Lord--a statute for ever throughout their generations every year. 2 30. And to this there is no limit of days; for it is ordained for ever regarding Israel that they should celebrate it and dwell in booths, and set wreaths upon their heads, 3 and take leafy boughs, and willows from the brook. And Abraham took branches of palm trees, and the fruit of goodly trees, and every day going round the altar with the branches seven times



Interestingly enough the Karaite polemicist, Daniel Al-Qumisi mocked the modern-day custom of circling the tebha/bima (Hoshaanot) with the four minim:

"והכרתי פסילך". כי כל עבודתך אשר לא מן התורה הם כפסילים. וכן כל #בראני#. "ומצבותיך". איה היום מצבות בין ישראל חוץ מן התבות אשר בכל כנסיות בגלות. ומציבים לנגדם להשתחות לפניה וקוראים בשם ארון. וגם בימי חג הסכות לוקחים לולב ומסובבים סביב. וגם נשאים על כתפם בהודות והלל סביבות הכניסת במועדים. ולולי הוא כדברי איהם מצבות בישראל.

(I heartily thank my good friend Shawn Lichaa for providing me with this source).



3). Notice how Dr. Lawrence Schiffman (an Orthodox Jew) seems to infer that Rabbinic tradition about the usage of the four minim does NOT conform to Nehemiah but is a result of midrashic exegesis. Pretty radical..





Sunday, October 12, 2014

Aliyah L'regel Continued Long After the Destruction of the Temple




Aliyah l'regel refers to the thrice-yearly Biblically mandated pilgrimages to the Temple in Jerusalem. As with many customs that are thought to have become obsolete with the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE, this continued to be done long after (see also my post here)

Brill:

After the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem, the ritual of the biblical pilgrimage festivals continued on, especially on the seventh day of the Succoth (Hoshaʿna Rabba), with processions and litanies on the Mount of Olives as the last residence of the Shekhinah. During the Crusader period, the Mount of Olives was replaced by a series of individual stations where recollection of the biblical past, mourning for the destroyed temple, and messianic eschatology (Messiah: III) were combined, sometimes in polemical debate with Christian pilgrims. Pilgrimage sites outside Jerusalem are named in the itineraries of Jewish pilgrims from Christian Europe who visited the Holy Land in the wake of the Crusaders, along with the tombs of biblical figures (Cave of Machpelah in Hebron, Rachel’s Tomb in Bethlehem), and the graves of rabbis, especially in Galilee. In the case of the latter, site locations were often more stable than their association with particular individuals. In the Diaspora, especially in the Muslim world, graves also became pilgrimage sites during the Middle Ages, along with synagogues that were associated with biblical figures (Moses, Elijah, Ezra) or housed Torah scrolls or biblical codices of ¶ particular antiquity. To date almost no attention has been paid to references to similar pilgrimage practices among the Ashkenazim (Mainz, Worms, Regensburg) in the Middle Ages and early modern period (Judaism: II)
The Old Testament contains references to pilgrimage traditions in a wide variety of historical and religio-historical strata. Besides some traditions represented only vestigially (e.g. 1 Sam 1:3ff.; 9:11ff.), the major pilgrimages are regulated precisely: in Israel they are associated with the three great annual (harvest) festivals (Feasts and festivals: II; III) of Passover, the Feast of Weeks, and the Festival of Booths (see II, 1 below). On these occasions “every male” was initially required simply to “appear” before the Lord (Exod 23:17; 34:23; Deut 16:16), which meant visiting a (local) sanctuary and offering produce of the harvest. Association with a pilgrimage to the Jerusalem temple probably emerged in the process of cultic centralization.

Gaza has a long Jewish history. It also served as a substitute to Jerusalem when the city was off limits to Jews. According to Yaari:

עדות על חשיבותה של עזה בימי הכיבוש הביזאנטי כמעין תחליף לירושלים, יש לנו ממקור קראי, ממנו לומדים שבאותם ימים היו היהודים עולים לרגל לעזה בגלל האיסור שנשאר מימי הרומאים לעלות לירושלים. (אברהם יערי, ‘זכרונות ארץ ישראל’, עמ’ 62).

Translation:


The importance Gaza (to the Jews) during the Byzantine occupation (of Eretz Israel), during Medieval times, we learn from a qaraite source. An old Genizah document reveals that many Jews would ascended to Gaza during the thrice-yearly Biblically mandated festival pilgrimages (this was/is done even sans Temple, though it was/is no longer [temporarily] mandatory), as the Roman edict barring Jews from Jerusalem was still in effect.

A fascinating archeological find that sheds more light on the term 'regel':




"The discovery of these 'foot' structures opens an entirely new system of linguistic and historical perceptions," Prof. Zertal emphasizes. He explains that the meaning of the biblical Hebrew word for "foot" - "regel" – is also a "festival", "holiday", and ascending to see the face of God. As such, the source of the Hebrew term "aliya la-regel", literally translated as "ascending to the foot" (and now known in English as a pilgrimage), is attributed to the "foot" sites in the Jordan valley. "Now, following these discoveries, the meanings of the terms become clear. Identifying the 'foot' enclosures as ancient Israeli ceremonial sites leads us to a series of new possibilities to explain the beginnings of Israel, of the People of Israel's festivals and holidays," he stated.
 According to Prof. Zertal, the "foot" constructions were used for ceremonial assemblies during Iron Age I (and probably after). When the religious center was moved to Jerusalem and settled there, the command of "aliya la-regel" (pilgrimage) became associated with Jerusalem. The source of the term, however, is in the sites that have now been discovered in the Jordan valley and the Altar on Mt. Ebal. "The biblical text testifies to the antiquity of these compounds in Israel's ceremonials, and the 'foot' structures were built by an organized community that had a central leadership," Prof. Zertal stated. He stressed that there is a direct connection between the biblical ideology, which identifies ownership over the new land with the foot and hence with the shape of the constructions.   

 NOTES:


*The common Karaite appellation/surname 'yeru' is short for 'yerushalmi' ( 'al-qudsi' is a variation of this name, e,g, Karaite historian Murad Al-Qudsi), apparently these appellations were added to one's name, after completing a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. This is not dissimilar to the 'haj' ritual of Muslims (the haj is most likely derived from jewish practice).

It stemmed from the age-old Karaite desire to live in Yerushalayim as an אבל ציון in order to help bring on the גאולה . Since it became impractical and/or financially unaffordable to move one’s family there, people would always aim, if they could, to at least spend some time (anywhere from a few months to a year or more) there and the taking of the name Yerushalmi was meant to show that the returnee actually felt Yerushalayim to be his true home and his place of dwelling outside the land as just a temporary residence. Making the trip was a very expensive thing and most people could only dream of doing so. Most of those that did make the trip had to save up for many years to afford it. The situation was different for Karaites in Syrian and Egypt from which the cost of travel to Yerushalayim were much less than for those in Istanbul, the Crimea, Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland, or Central Asia. Many would move back and forth between Eres Yisrael, Syria, and Egypt, depending on conditions and employment opportunities. For example, Hakham Mosheh Ben-Avraham al-Qudsi (originally ad-Dimashqi) was born in Yerushalayim. His father had moved there from Damacus and became the Hakham Rashi of Yerushalayim. Hakham Mosheh moved to Cairo and eventually became the Hakham Rashi there. Hakham Mosheh’s older brother Dawid became the Hakham Rashi after his father and, when he died in 1872, Hakham Mosheh returned to Yerushalayim to become the Hakham Rashi after him (I thank Hakham Rahmiel Qannai for this insight).

Interesting to note that some Ashkenazi rabbanites also had the surname 'yerusalimski', some later changed it to yerushalmi (e.g. the famed historian  Yosef Haim Yerushalmi);
יוסף חיים ירושלמי נולד וגדל בארצות הברית. שני הוריו היגרו מרוסיה; אמו הגיעה לארצות הברית מפינסק ביחד עם סבתו, אחיה ואחיותיה הגיעו לאמריקה לפניה. אביו נולד בגולסקוב שבאוקראינה למשפחה יהודית-ציונית ששמה ירוסלימסקי





Wednesday, October 08, 2014

Bar Kokhba's Favorite Holiday

at my other blog

Thursday, October 02, 2014

Graffiti By an Eretz Yisrael Ammora?


Could this be the handiwork of the EY Ammora, Rabi Hiyya Bar Abba?

אנא חייא "I am Hiyya".
(Scholars believe that the rest of the graffiti was left by a different individual)

With the Synagogue in Dura Europos now in the hands of ISIS a closer look at an often overlooked treasure trove of Jewish history is warranted.

Note 1: The traditional dating for the completion of the construction of the Synagogue at Dura Europos is circa 244 CE. Rav Hiyya's death is said to have taken place at 230 CE (give or take. In my case I'd rather give some..).


Note 2. The reason why I've chosen this Rav Hiyya is because he is known to have traveled from his hometown in Tiberias to various communities-both in EY and in the Diaspora including Syria (see JT Peah, 8, 6). He is also said to have appointed archons  (Ibid). During his travels in the Diaspora he was active in strengthening Jewish identity and raising money for the poor (including for himself). The Jerusalem Talmud (Hagiga 1, 8) relates that he received a personal letter of approbation, from the Nassi (not dissimilar to what is shown today by 'meshulakhim' from Israel, who knock on your door right at that moment when you're about to sit down and enjoy dinner after an exhausting day at work, but I digress..) attesting to his great personal worth. The contents of the letter was: הרי שלחנו אליכם אדם גדול.
Perhaps on a stop over at Dura Europos, Rabi Hiyya decided to etch his great name in stone...
Be it as it may, this blog makes for some fascinating reading:

Thursday, September 11, 2014

Was There Ever a Karaite Community in Hebron?

At my other blog
http://toldotyisrael.wordpress.com/2014/09/11/was-there-ever-a-karaite-community-in-hebron/

Tuesday, August 19, 2014

Have Any New Fragments of Anan Ben David's Sefer Hamitzvot Come To Light?

I just finished reading Peter Cole and Adina Hoffman's excellent book on the Genizah see here
and here
I was  not very surprised to learn that the Genizah fragment have not yet been fully examined in their entirety. More than that, overlooked fragments-often discovered in private collections or even in dusty university basements- have their way of popping up every now and then. Other 'genizot' like the recently vaunted 'Afghan Genizah' may also prove to be of some promise. Be it as it may, I am positively optimistic that more of this work can and will be recovered (hey, if a book like Ben Sira-lost for a millenium- can be reconstituted like a jigsaw puzzle, so can a 1300 year old one).

The first 2 are reproduced from the excellent

Scripture and schismSamaritan and Karaite treasures from the library of the Jewish Theological Seminary : an exhibition December 14, 2000-April 5, 2001

The Library, 2000 (they seem to come from the Firkovich Collection).




Here's another fragment available for online viewing. This is an excerpt of Anan's laws regarding levirate marriages.


Ms. Schmierer-Lee of Cambridge was kind enough to apprise me of what that fine instituion has come about so far in the matter:

We don't have a comprehensive list of Sefer ha-Mitzvot fragments in the Genizah, but I do know of several. T-S 16.359-367 (known as MS A-D) were published by Schechter in Document of Jewish Sectaries Vol 2 (1910), and there is another fragment at classmark T-S F1(1).82 - this fragment was published by Epstein in Tarbiz vol. 7 (1936).

We are gradually putting manuscripts online (ca. 15,000 of the ca. 200,000 in Cambridge) and of these classmarks only the last one is online now:

http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-TS-F-00001-00001-00082/1

The T-S 16 fragments are scheduled to be put online before the end of this calendar year.

Kind regards

Melonie Schmierer-Lee
Research Associate
T-S Genizah Unit
Cambridge University Library


Hoffman and Cole relate the tale of the first discoveries of Anan's original work in their inimitible style:






And some actual excerpts from said book, culled from several different sources. The rest of the fragments have been collected and published by Simcha Pinsker over a century ago. They can be viewed in their entirety here  Anyone familiar with Talmudic methodology will easily see the similar casuistic style:

 לא תתן להעביר למולך': לאפוקי שכבת זרעא לרעותא דנפשיה, דמולך רעותא דליבא היא דכתיב וימלך עלי לבי (קונטרסים לסה"מ לענן, קמברדש 32). פירוש מופלא שראייתו בצדו! 

מהו שעטנז? ;בהמה קרי שעט דכתיב מקול שעטת פרסות סוסיו, ונז קרי להו לזרעים משום דבמיא אתרבו ומיא אתמר בהו נז דכ' מים זרים קרים נוזלים (סה"מ לענן 5)

לתומינו סברנו שאנו יודעים את פירוש המושג 'בשתי או בערב', עד שבא ענן ולימדנו בשתי או בערב, בשתי כל דשתי מיא, דכתיב
 למען אשר לא יגבהו בקומתם כל שותי מים (זו טעות, ולשון המקרא: ולא יעמדו עליהם בגבהם כל שותי מים - יחזקאל לא יד) או בערב אינהו כל בהמות דאיקרו ערוב דכתיב ויהי ערוב כבד (סה"מ לענן 6). 

עוד הוא אומר אם רחץ ה' את צואת בנות ציון ואת דמי ירושלים ידיח מקרבה ברוח משפט וברוח בער (ישעיה ד ד), אמא (=אמר) ברוח משפט עבדה לרחיצתך רחיצת נדה כמשפט, וקא אמא ברוח בער אמר לך חווריה שפיר להאי דם נדה (שם 27)

בחריש ובקציר תשבות אמר ענן כי זה על משכב האשה (ראב"ע), ורביעה נמי חרישה היא דכתיב לולי חרשתם בעגלתי (סה"מ לענן 4). 
ויתד תהיה על אזנך, דבעי למהוי לי' סכתא על מכנסי וקרי רכב איש אלא שאין דורשין בסתרי עריות בפרהסיא (שם). ומלת גדי אמיתתה בבירורה לשון מגדים (שיר השירים ד יג), (הדסי, זכרון לראשונים ח 152)

For more on Anan see my post here and here

Thursday, July 31, 2014

Jews Accused of "Negrophobia" in an Op-Ed from 1882

The Christian Recorder was an African American Newspaper. The following was published in an Op-Ed, on June 1, 1882. It's a fascinating glimpse into the mindset of African Americans and their first cautious steps in a volatile post-slavery America. It is especially interesting how the tiny Jewish community was perceived by the African American intellegensia of the time. 


THE EXILES. 


We have no desire to put a straw in the way of the most cordial reception to the Jewish exiles immigrating to our country. On the contrary, they command the sincerest sympathy of our nature, as do any outraged peoples. Having felt the fire ourselves, we know somewhat of the hurt. And yet we cannot refrain from criticising the spirit that actuates, possibly, a majority of the Jews in our country - the spirit that leads them to seek alliance with the very class of men who are the terror of their trans-atlantic brethren. Like the majority of the Irish coming among us, they seem instinctively to take to democracy and the spirit of negrophobia in general. While slavery lasted, they were among the meanest of those who engaged in it. And when the South rebelled in the interest of the peculiar institution, Jewish brain in the purpose of Judah Benjamin, lent its chief force. Nor have they greatly changed since. Chief of those in Congress who railed against the Chinese, were Belmont, of New York, and Jonas of Louisiana, both Jews . Nor are these to be looked upon in the light of exceptions. Read the following, from the Hebrew Leader, of May 19, which though only a straw, still shows which way the current runs: “The press has ventilated the terrible condition of these persecuted people, but the usual generosity of the American in responding to the cry for succor has not followed, and the reason must be traced to a certain stupid prejudice against the class of Jews who came from Russia. But it would be extraordinary if these poor people were cultured and attractive. They are what centuries of oppression have made them. Similar causes produce similar effects on all men of the Caucasian race.” Our first remark on the above is that whatever be the prejudice of the American people to Jews , it is general and not particular, as the Leader says. Americans could have no prejudice to Russian Jews , because these have not come to us in sufficient numbers to make themselves specially known. Indeed the average American does not know whether the Jew he meets is Spanish, German Polish or Russian. He only knows him as a Jew . And if he be prejudiced at all, it is against the race and not the nation. Our second remark relates to the statement: “Similar causes produce similar effects on all men of the Caucasian race.” The question whether the Jews are to be ranked with the Caucasian race, seems to be clearer to the mind of the Leader than it does to some other people. The “American Cyclopaedia,” for instance, under the head, Caucasian Race, says: --- To it belong all the ancient and modern Europeans, excepting the Finish tribes, the Indians, Persians, Phoenicians, HEBREWS, Arabs and other tribes of West Asia.” But supposing they do belong to the Caucasian race, is not the statement of this Jew an exceedingly narrow one, and does it not indicate a narrowness of soul that does not befit an American citizen, even though he be a member of a race that has been kicked and cuffed through all time; and is today, in more quarters of the globe than one, the subject of this same kicking and cuffing process? Does he not know that similar causes produce similar effects on all races; and not especially on the Caucasian? Take almost any of the African nations of today, at whom the Leader indirectly points its dart. When the Jew was in his prime, were not these also? Did not their great Solomon take to himself a Pharaonic wife? And is it not more than tradition that his descendents today rule Abysinia? Like the Jew in Russia, the peoples of both these once powerful and cultured nations, are what “centuries of oppression have made them.” In conclusion, we say to the American Jew what we say to the American Irish, if you wish American help, you must stop giving aid and sympathy to oppression at home, while pleading to be freed from it abroad. THE editor of the Missouri Republican - republican by name but democratic by profession - asks the following questions, giving them, of course, negative answers: “If the five million colored people in this country were given a fair and ample domain in the extreme South - any Florida, Louisiana, Texas, or a strip along the gulf embracing parts of all these states and of Alabama and Mississippi, as a field to make the experiment of self-government in - what would be the result? Would the black man in that favoring climate and under the most kindly influences that could be extended to him, do what the white man has done with such signal success in the North, in the East, South and the West? Would he found a powerful and enlightened state like Massachusetts, or Michigan, or the equal of Georgia and Mississippi, studded with temples, seminaries, school houses, mills, factories and work-shops, and yielding hundreds of millions in value of varied products as a contribution to the world's commerce? No long array of facts or argument is needed to silence such “quaker guns,” as these questions are. Have the white people in possession of “Florida, Louisiana, Texas, or the strip along the Gulf, embracing parts of all these states and of Alabama and Mississippi” - have these white people, we say, accomplished what he demands the colored people to accomplish? Have they done what has been done in the North? This we say: Let the black men of that region be the upper rail as long as the white men have been, and if they do not make Louisiana, and Mississippi, and all the region alluded to as nearly like the great North and West, as have done the white man, then we will admit that they are no more their equals.

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